Category Archives: TECHNOLOGY

How Google Search Engine Autocomplete & Suggestions(Predictions) Work

It’s a well known feature of Google. Start typing in a search, and Google offers suggestions before you’ve even finished typing. But how does Google come up with those suggestions? When does Google remove some suggestions? When does Google decide not to interfere? Come along for some answers.

Google & Search Suggestions

Google was not the first search engine to offer search suggestions, nor it is the only one. But being the most popular search engine has caused many to look at Google’s suggestions more closely.

Google has been offering “Google Suggest” or “Autocomplete” on the Google web site since 2008(and as an experimental feature back since 2004). So suggestions — or “predictions” as Google calls them — aren’t new.

What Google suggests for searches gained new attention after Google Instant Search was launched last year. Google Instant is a feature that automatically loads results and changes those results. That interactivity caused many to take a second look at suggestions, including an attempt to list all blocked suggestions.

Suggestions Based On Real Searches

The suggestions that Google offers all come from how people actually search. For example, type in the word “coupons,” and Google suggests:

  • coupons for walmart
  • coupons online
  • coupons for target
  • coupons for knotts scary farm

These are all real searches that have been done by other people. Popularity is a factor in what Google shows. If lots of people who start typing in “coupons” then go on to type “coupons for walmart,” that can help make “coupons for walmart” appear as a suggestion.

Google says other factors are also used to determine what to show beyond popularity. However, anything that’s suggested comes from real search activity by Google users, the company says.

Suggestions Can Vary By Region & Language

Not everyone sees the same suggestions. For example, above in the list is “coupons for knotts scary farm.” I see that, because I live near the Knott’s Berry Farm amusement park in Orange County, California, which holds a popular “Knott’s Scary Farm” event each year.

If I manually change my location to tell Google that I’m in Des Moines, Iowa, that particular suggestion goes away and is replaced by “coupons for best buy.”

Similarly, if I go to Google UK, I get suggestions like:

  • coupons uk
  • coupons and vouchers
  • coupons for tesco

Tesco is a major UK supermarket chain, just one reflection of how localized those suggestions are.

This is also why something like the Google Instant Alphabet or The United States of Autocomplete(shown below) — while clever — aren’t accurate and never can be, unless you’re talking about the suggestions shown in a particular region.

In short, location is important. The country you’re in, the state or province, even the city, all can produce different suggestions.

Language also has an impact. Different suggestions will appear if you’ve told Google that you prefer to search in a particular language, or based on the language Google assumes you use, as determined by your browser’s settings.

Previously Searched Suggestions

Google’s suggestions may also contain things you’ve searched for before, if you make use of Google’s web history feature.

For example, when I search for “rollerblade,” my suggestions look like this:

  • rollerblade parts
  • Rollerblade 2009 Speedmachine 110
  • rollerblades
  • rollerblade wheels
  • rollerblade

The first two come from my search history. That’s why they have the little “Remove” option next to them.

Personalized suggestion like these have been offered since May 2009. The only change with Google Instant was that they were made to look different, shown in purple similar to how links look at some web sites, to indicate if you’ve clicked on them before.

How Suggestions Are Ranked

How are the suggestions shown ranked? Are the more popular searches listed above others? No.

Popularity is a factor, but some less popular searches might be shown above more popular ones, if Google deems them more relevant, the company says. Personalized searches will always come before others.

Deduplicating & Spelling Corrections

There a small degree of deduplicating and spelling correction that happens in the final suggestions that show, Google says.

For example, if some people are typing in “LadyGaga” as a single word, all those searches still influence “Lady Gaga” being suggested — and suggested as two words.

Similarly, words that should have punctuation can get consolidated. Type “ben and je…” and it will be “ben and jerry’s” that gets suggested, even if many people leave off the apostrophe.

Freshness Matters

Google Autocomplete also has what the company calls a “freshness layer.” If there are terms that suddenly spike in popularity in the short term, these can appear as suggestions, even if they haven’t gained long-term popularity.

A good example of this was when actress Anna Paquin was married. “Anna Paquin wedding” started appearing as a suggestion just before her big day, Google says. That was useful to suggest, because many people were starting to search for that.

If Google had relied solely on long-term data, then the suggestion wouldn’t have made it. And today, it no longer appears, as it didn’t maintain long-term popularity (though “anna paquin married” has stuck).

How short-term is short-term? Google won’t get into specifics. But suggestions have been spotted appearing within hours after some search trend has taken off.

Why & How Suggestions Get Removed

As I said earlier, Google’s predictions have been offered for years, but when they were coupled with Google Instant, that sparked a renewed interest in what was suggested and what wasn’t. Were things being removed?

Yes, and for these specific reasons, Google says:

  • Hate or violence related suggestions
  • Personally identifiable information in suggestions
  • Porn & adult-content related suggestions
  • Legally mandated removals
  • Piracy-related suggestions

Automated filters may be used to block any suggestion that’s against Google’s policies and guidelines from appearing, the company says. For example, the filters work to keep things that seem like phone numbers and social security numbers from showing up.

Since the filters aren’t perfect, some suggestions may get kicked over for a human review, Google says.

Hate Speech & Protected Groups

In terms of blocking hate and violence suggestions, it’s not that everything possibly hateful gets blocked as a suggestion.

For example, “i hate my mom” and “i hate my dad” are both suggestions that come up if you type in “i hate my.” Similarly, “hate gl” brings up both “hate glee” and “hate glenn beck.”

Instead, hate suggestions are removed if they are against a “protected” group. So what’s a protected group?

Google doesn’t actually define this on its Autocomplete help page. However, a Google AdWords help page has a rundown on what Google’s long-considered to be protected groups:

  • race or ethnic origin
  • color
  • national origin
  • religion
  • disability
  • sex
  • age
  • veteran status
  • sexual orientation or gender identity

Even “majority” groups such as whites get covered by this, under the “color” category. That seems to be why “i hate white” doesn’t prompt a suggestion for “i hate whites,” just as “i hate black” doesn’t suggest “i hate blacks.”

However, in both cases, other hate references do get through (“i hate white girls” and “i hate black girls” both appear). This is where a human review may happen, if the reference is noticed.

Legal Cases & Removals

Google blocks some suggestions for legal reasons. For example, last year, Google lost two cases in France involving Google Autocomplete.

In the first, Google was ordered to remove the word “arnaque” — which means scam — from coming up as a suggestion for when someone typed in the name of a distance learning company.

Google appears to have done this, when I checked today. Google would not say if it is appealing the case or whether this applies to preventing the word “arnaque” from appearing next to any company’s name.

From some limited testing, I think Google is preventing from “arnaque” from appearing after any company name but not before (“arnaque paypay” and “arnaque groupon” are suggestions).

In the second French autocomplete case, a plantiff — whose conviction was on appeal — sued and won a symbolic 1 euro payment in damages over having the words “rapist” and “satanist” appearing next to his name.

The plantiff’s name wasn’t given in the case, so I can’t check that the terms were removed as ordered. Last year, Google said it would appeal the ruling. The company gave me no update on things when I asked for this article. It doesn’t seem likely that this has caused Google to drop having such terms appear next to the names of other people.

Yesterday, news broke about Google losing a case in Italy involving suggestions. Here, a man sued over having the Italian words for conman and fraud appearing next to his name.

I can’t check if Google has complied with the ruling, because the man’s name was never given — nor does his lawyer make clear if Google has complied. It’s also unclear if this ruling is causing such terms to be dropped in relation to anyone’s name (this seems unlikely).

I asked Google about this but was only given a standard statement:

We are disappointed with the decision from the Court of Milan.  We believe that Google should not be held liable for terms that appear in Autocomplete as these are predicted by computer algorithms based on searches from previous users, not by Google itself.  We are currently reviewing our options.

In the US, Google won a case last month waged by a woman unhappy that the words “levitra” and “cialis” appeared near her name. That case largely involved arguments about commercial infringement, rather than taking a libel stance.

Postscript: Sean Carlos of Antezeta has more on the Milan case here.

Controversial Cases

Aside from legal cases, Google’s suggestions have occasionally become news controversies. Typically, Google responds to these with a standard answer, which goes like this: the predictions are based on how people search, not by any particular “agenda” that the company is trying to push.

Google tells me it doesn’t typically comment more in these cases, because it doesn’t want to be in the position of having to issue a detailed response for any oddity that someone spots. Still, Google did open up about two examples of strange suggestions that have come up in the past.

One involved the suggestion “climategate,” which oddly disappeared shortly after appearing. My Climategate: Just How Popular Is It, According To Google? story from December 2009 has more about this.

Blame that aforementioned freshness layer, says Google. Back when this all happened, the freshness layer had a gap that allowed spiking queries to appear for a short period of time, then disappear unless they gained more long term popularity.

That gap has since been reduced. Spiking queries stay around longer, then drop unless they gain long-term traction. The “climategate” suggestion didn’t catch on and so disappeared. It wasn’t manually removed, as some assumed, Google said.

Interestingly, looking today, “climategate” still hasn’t gained enough long term popularity to come up as a suggestion at Google. But over at Bing — which, of course, uses its own unique suggestion system — it is offered.

In another case, a search for “islam is” was producing no suggestions while searches for other religions were — including negative ones. Our Islam Is … Blocked By ‘Bug’ In Google Suggest story from January 2010 has more about this.

As it turned out, there was a human error involved, Google told me.

Those suggestions had been escalated for human review as possibly being hate-related. A block was placed, because someone assumed that Islam as a religion met the protected group criteria.

But in fact, Google Autocomplete does not consider religions to be protected groups (I’ll get back to this). So other religions didn’t have a filter established for them.

Today, “islam is” brings back some negative suggestions, just as is the case with other religions.

Nationalities Briefly Protected; Religions Not

Feeling confused about who get protected, at this point? So am I.

Remember when I listed what a protected group was, according to Google, above? That included religions, but that’s the definition that Google AdWords uses, not Google Autocomplete.

Similarly, Google’s YouTube has its own definition of protected groups:

Protected groups include race or ethnic origin, religion, disability, gender, age, veteran status, and sexual orientation/gender identity.

National origin isn’t on that list. Indeed, it wasn’t on the unpublished list that Google Autocomplete uses until last May, when Google began to filter suggestions related to nationality. Search for “americans are,” for example, and you got nothing.

To me, it’s kind of crazy. Why protect nationalities but not religions? And why wouldn’t suggestions like “jews are cheap” or “jews are racist” be considered against a protected group, in terms of a race or ethnic group?

Google gave me this statement on the topic (the brackets aren’t me removing words but instead how Google indicates a search term):

Simply put, nationalities refer to individuals, religions do not. Our hate policy is designed to remove content aimed at specific groups of individuals. So [islamics are] and [jews are] or [whites are] would possibly be filtered, while queries such as [islam is] and [judaism is] would not because the suggestions are directed at other entities, not people.

Sorry, I’m not convinced by this. Worse, when I did some double-checking today, the previously established nationality filter — which the statement defends — appears to be turned off. Yes, Americans are again fat, lazy and ignorant, as Google’s “predictions” suggest, and the French are lazy cowards.

Can You Request Removals?

As you can imagine, some people would like to have negative suggestions removed. However, as explained, Google only does this in very specific instances. The company doesn’t even have a form to request this (though there is a help page on the topic, that suggests leaving comments in Google’s support forums).

Should businesses be allowed to request removal of suggestions? It’s not something that Google wants to arbitrate. Jonathan Effrat, a product manager at Google who works on Google Instant, told me:

Unfortunately, we won’t do a removal in those situations. A lot of times people are searching for it, and there’s a legitimate reason. I had a friend who used to work for a company, and the company name plus “sucks” was a suggestion, and that was the reality. It’s not really our place to say you shouldn’t be searching for that.

There are signs that Google has been pulling back by suggesting “scam” along with company names, but despite these reports, you can still find examples where this still happens. Google hasn’t commented if it’s actually made any change like this, by the way.

What About Piracy?

Of course, Google recently did decide that people shouldn’t be searching for things, in the case of online piracy, when it began blocking terms it deemed to be piracy-related in January.

That took out — and continues to take out — suggestions for some sites that may also be used for legitimate reasons. To be clear, suggestions were removed, not the sites themselves.

Want to read the Wikileaks files directly? BitTorrent or uTorrent have software that will allow you to do this. But today, Google won’t auto-suggest their names as you begin to type, deeming them too piracy related.

Aside from taking out some potentially innocent parties, the whole thing feels kind of hypocritical. Why does Google feel it needs to go over-and-above to protect searchers piracy-related suggestions when there are a range of other potential harmful ones out there?

The answer, in my view, is that this is a PR battle Google wants to win as studios and networks accuse it of supporting piracy and seek to enlist the aid of the US Congress. Dropping piracy suggestions is an easy gift, especially when Google’s not proactively removing the real issue, sites that host pirated content in its own results. It’s also a gift that might help it get network blocking of Google TV lifted.

And Fake Queries?

Meanwhile, another issue has gained fresh attention — the ability for people to “manufacture” suggestions. In particular, Amazon’s Mechanical Turk is a well-known venue where people can request that others do searches. When enough searches happen, then suggestions start appearing.

Brent Payne is probably one of the most notable examples of someone deliberately doing this “above the radar,” so to speak. He ran a series of experiments where he hired people on Mechanical Turk to do searches, which (until Google removed them) caused suggestions to appear:

Tempted to try it? Aside from potentially violating Mechanical Turk’s terms, Google says doing so is something it deems spam and will take corrective action against, if spotted.

What action? So far, that seems to be limited to removing the manufactured suggestions.

Postscript: Payne’s study has apparently gone away, but another study done in March 2012 showed that using Mechanical Turk can still have an impact.

A Suggestion For Google’s Suggestions

As I said, Google Instant prompted renewed attention about Google’s suggestions — along with debate about whether Google should be offering suggestions at all, given the reputation nightmare they can bring to some companies and individuals, as well as offense they bring to other groups. On the flipside, there’s the usefulness of them.

Here’s a case that illustrates the balancing act. Last year, a skydiving company contacted me, concerned that searches for its name brought up a suggestion of its name plus the words “death” or “accident.” Yes, the company had someone who died in a jump.

That’s something harmful to the company, even if true. Skydiving is by its nature an extremely dangerous sport, and the suggestion gives no guidance about whether the company was somehow at fault. It just immediately suggests there’s something wrong with the company.

However, it’s also incredibly useful for searchers, as a way for them to refine their queries in ways they might not expect.

Still, I think the balancing act should tip back toward not offering up anything negative about any person, company or group. No nonsense about “protected groups.” Just kill the negative suggestions, period.

This is a suggestion for all the major search engines, by the way. Enough singling out Google, when these types of examples can be found easily on Bing and Yahoo, also.

If there are negative things that people want to discover about a person, company or group, those will come out in the search results themselves, and mixed in with more context overall — good, bad or perhaps indifferent.

Yes, many Americans know they’re stereotypically seen as fat. Other nationalities and religious groups also know that there are many hurtful stereotypes about them. But who wants Google seeming to tell them that?

Yes, Google’s correct in saying that the suggestions it shows reflect what many people are searching for — and thus think.

Still, parroting harmful thoughts “searched” by others doesn’t make those things any less hurtful or harmful. And by repeating these things, there’s an argument that search engines simply makes the situation worse.




How to Set Up BitLocker Encryption on Windows 10


BitLocker is a tool built into Windows that allows you to encrypt your entire hard drive for enhanced security. Here’s how to set it up.

When TrueCrypt controversially closed up shop, they recommended their users transition away from TrueCrypt to BitLocker. BitLocker Drive Encryption and BitLocker To Go require a Professional or Enterprise edition of Windows 8, or 8.1 or 10, or the Ultimate version of Windows 7. However, the “core” version of Windows 8.1 includes a “Device Encryption” feature that works similarly.

Enable BitLocker For a Drive

To enable BitLocker, open the Control Panel and navigate to System and Security > BitLocker Drive Encryption. You can also open Windows Explorer or File Explorer, right-click a drive, and select Turn On BitLocker. If you don’t see this option, you don’t have the right edition of Windows.


Click the Turn on BitLocker option next to an operating system drive, internal drive (“fixed data drive”), or removable drive to enable BitLocker for the drive.

There are two types of BitLocker encryption you can enable here:

  • BitLocker Drive Encryption:  Sometimes referred to just as BitLocker, this is a “full-disk encryption” feature that will encrypt an entire drive. When the computer boots, the Windows boot loader loads from the System Reserved partition, and the boot loader will prompt you for your unlock method — for example, a password. BitLocker will then decrypt the drive and load Windows. The encryption is otherwise transparent — your files will appear like they normally would on an unencrypted system, but they’re stored on the disk in an encrypted form. You can also encrypt other drives in a computer, not just the operating system drive.
  • BitLocker To Go: External drives, such as USB flash drives and external hard drives, can be encrypted with BitLocker To Go. You’ll be prompted for your unlock method — for example, a password — when you connect the drive to your computer. If someone doesn’t have the unlock method, they can’t access the files on the drive.


Use BitLocker Without a TPM

If the PC you’re enabling BitLocker on doesn’t have a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), you’ll see a message saying your administrator must set the “Allow BitLocker without a compatible TPM” option.

BitLocker Drive Encryption normally requires requires a computer with a TPM to secure an operating system drive. This is a microchip built into the computer, installed on the motherboard. BitLocker can store the encryption keys here, which is more secure than simply storing them on the computer’s data drive. The TPM will only provide the encryption keys after verifying the state of the computer. An attacker can’t just rip out your computer’s hard disk or create an image of an encrypted disk and decrypt it on another computer.


If you’re doing this on your own computer, you’re the computer’s administrator. You’ll just need to open the Local Group Policy Editor application and change this setting.

Press Windows Key + R to open the Run dialog, type gpedit.msc into it, and press Enter. Navigate to Computer Configuration \ Administrative Templates \ Windows Components \ BitLocker Drive Encryption \ Operating System Drives. Double-click the “Require additional authentication at startup” setting, select Enabled, and check the “Allow BitLocker without a compatible TPM” option. Click OK to save the new setting.


Choose an Unlock Method

Next, you’ll see the “Choose how to unlock your drive at startup” screen. You can select several different ways of unlocking the drive. If your computer doesn’t have a TPM, you can unlock the drive with a password or by inserting a special USB flash drive that functions as a key.

If your computer does have a TPM, you’ll have additional options. For example, you can configure automatic unlocking at startup — your computer will grab the encryption keys from the TPM and automatically decrypt the drive. You could also secure it in other ways — for example, you could provide a PIN at startup. That PIN would unlock the strong decryption key stored in the TPM and unlock the drive.

Choose your preferred unlock option and follow the instructions in the next screen to set it up.


Back Up Your Recovery Key

BitLocker will provide you with a recovery key. This key can be used to access your encrypted files if you ever lose your main key — for example, if you forget your password or if the computer with the TPM dies and you have to remove the drive.

You can save the key to a file, print it, store it on a USB flash drive, or save it to your Microsoft account on Windows 8 and 8.1. If you back up the recovery key to your Microsoft account, you can access the key later at Be sure to keep this key safe — if someone gains access to your key, they could decrypt your drive and bypass the encryption. You may want to back it up in multiple locations — if you lose this recovery key and your main unlock method, your encrypted files will be lost forever.


Encrypt and Unlock the Drive

BitLocker will automatically encrypt new files as you add them, but you’ll need to choose what happens with the files currently on your drive. You can encrypt the entire drive — including the free space — or just encrypt the used disk files to speed up the process.

If you’re setting up BitLocker on a new PC, encrypt the used disk space only — it’s faster. If you’re setting BitLocker up on a PC you’ve been using for a while, you should encrypt the entire drive to ensure no one can recover deleted files. Encrypting only the used disk space is faster, while encrypting the entire drive takes longer.

You’ll be prompted to run a BitLocker system check and reboot your computer. After the computer boots back up for the first time, the drive will be encrypted. Check the BitLocker Drive Encryption icon in the system tray to see its progress. You can continue using your computer while it’s being encrypted, but it performs more slowly.


When your computer boots, you’ll see a BitLocker prompt if you need to enter a password, PIN, or plug in a USB flash drive.

Press Escape here if you lose your unlock method. You’ll be able to enter your recovery key.


If you choose to encrypt a removable drive with BitLocker To Go, you’ll see a similar wizard but your drive will be encrypted without any rebooting required. Don’t remove the drive while it’s being encrypted.


When you connect the drive to a computer, you’ll be prompted to provide the password or smart card you chose to unlock the removable device. Drives protected with BitLocker are identified with a lock icon in Windows Explorer or File Explorer.


You can manage a locked drive — change the password, turn off BitLocker, back up your recovery key, or perform other actions — from the BitLocker control panel window. Right-click an encrypted drive and select Manage BitLocker to go directly to it.


Like all encryption, BitLocker does add some overhead. Microsoft’s official BitLocker FAQsays that “Generally it imposes a single-digit percentage performance overhead.” If encryption is important to you because you have sensitive data — for example, a laptop full of business documents — it’s worth the performance trade-off.




how you can unlock Special Features in Windows 10 settings

5 Special Feature in #Windows10 That You Did Not Know

Now that 300+ million users worldwide are using Windows 10, you should be one of them. Unless Windows 10 was forced down your throat by Microsoft, you may actually start liking this operating system. Like all its earlier operating systems, Microsoft has baked in certain tweaks into Windows 10 which can be accessed only if you look for it. The tweaks are to help you get certain results faster but do remember tweaking registry files is wrought with dangers.

Before proceeding down the tweaking lane, do remember to back up the registry. If anything goes wrong, you may get to salvage your Windows 10 PC using the backup. You can do this by selecting “File” and then “Export” from the #Regedit menus.

Once again, if you are not comfortable playing with internal settings of registry leave this tutorial alone. If you are comfortable proceed by typing “regedit” into the search box in the task bar and then launch the listed application.

Remember that any alterations you make beyond this point are at your own risk!

1. Enable Dark Theme Mode

As for what practical use this first tweak has, I don’t know but it looks different and is easy to do if you follow the instructions correctly.

So you want to know how to enable the hidden dark theme in Windows 10: To start with you will need to navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Themes, and then create yourself a personalized key, then you need to create a new “DWORD” value within it called “AppsUseLightTheme” and keep the value set to 0.

Next you need to repeat the process for HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Themes and when you have restarted your Windows 10 machine the new dark theme will appear. However, if you want to change back you will need to delete the “AppsUseLightTheme” and “DWORD” values that you entered previously.

2. Speed up Computer Start Times

If you don’t have many apps slowing down your Windows 10 start up procedure, there is a way in which you can shave off a few seconds more for an even speedier start up. To do this, find HKEY_CURRENT_USER\ Software\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Explorer\ Serialize (You may have to create the Serialize key if it does not already exist), now create a new “DWORD” value and call it “StartupDelayInMSec” and set its value to 0. And just like with the previous tweak, if you want to set it back to how it was just delete the Serialize key.

3. Increase Taskbar Transparency

If you want to be able to see even more of the desktop background, even more than the Windows 10 personalization settings allow you.

To enable this you need to locate HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Microsoft\ Windows\ CurrentVersion\ Explorer\ Advanced. And then create a “UseOLEDTaskbarTransparency” ” DWORD” value inside of it. Oh and then set its value to 1. As with the previous tweaks you can reset it, and this time that is possible by deleting the “DWORD” value.

4. Disable Login Image

When you get to the Windows 10 login screen, you always see a default hero image, which was created by Microsoft. If you don’t like it there is a way for you to disable it! To do so, head over to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ SOFTWARE\ Policies\ Microsoft\ Windows\ System and add a new “DWORD” value. You should call this new value “DisableLogonBackgroundImage” and then set its value to 1.

5. Hide Onedrive in File Explorer

If like me you don’t use Onedrive, then it makes sense to want to remove it from showing up file explorer. This will not un-install Onedrive, but it will hide it. To do this the registry tweak you need isHKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\ CLSID\ {018D5C66-4533-4307-9B53-224DE2ED1FE6}.

Next you need to find “System.IsPinnedToNameSpaceTree”, and then double click on it, and set the value to 0. This enables you to hide the Onedrive icon from the file explorer navigation pane. However, if you do at some point need to find it go to C:\ Users\ \.



iPhone 8 Exclusive: Specification, New Changes and Price.

What you see above is a finalised hardware design. An enlarged, elongated 5.8-inch display is surrounded by dramatically reduced bezels of approximately 4mm on all sides, the theory being the iPhone 8 won’t be as prone to accidental input like the Infinity and Edge displays on Samsung’s premium Galaxy smartphones.

You will also see a new bottom edge render confirming Apple will not bring back the headphone jack after its controversial removal from the iPhone 7. Despite rumours to the contrary, the Lightning port also remains (though USB Type-C may feature on the wall plug as part of a wider move to finally adopt fast charging).

Another carry over from the iPhone 7 will be stereo speakers via a combination of the bottom speaker and an amplified earpiece.

Falling in line with my exclusive renders last week, Apple will definitely enlarge the power button. Exactly why remains unclear, but it is thought this is to give Apple a ( patented ) fallback option for Touch ID should it not manage to integrate this into the display. As it stands there is no firm word on which way this will go. The technology for screen integration exists, but scaling it to 10s of millions of units is the challenge.

What also remains uncertain is how Apple will redesign iOS 11 to accommodate the ‘cutout’ at the top of the display which exists to accommodate the front facing camera and sensors.

What Nodus and I believe is the remaining corners will simply be used for connectivity and battery status with notifications switched to the bottom in a new easier-to-reach and more detailed ‘ Function Area ’.

In addition, while our renders confirm the iPhone 8 has a dual rear camera with new vertical alignment, the exact configuration and resolution of the lenses is unknown. I’d expect Apple to stick with 12MP wide-angle and telephoto modules but make technical improvements – particularly aperture in the latter.

Finally – and not shown in the renders – I understand battery life will improve significantly. This will be due to a new L-shaped battery configuration that should deliver iPhone 7 Plus-beating stamina, but in a significantly smaller chassis.

The downside to all these improvements will be price.

The iPhone 8 will be Apple’s most expensive iPhone ever and I’m hearing pricing will startfrom $1,100 to $1,200. Some sources claim Apple will only offer the top two storage tiers (128GB, 256GB) but I don’t have enough information to corroborate this.  And yet despite a mammoth asking price and despite the fact there will three new iPhone models launching in September, it is fast becoming clear the dreams of Apple fans will only centre around one of them.

Desktop Computer at just Rs. 2000 only, how to Buy ?

This Rs. 2,000 'Desktop PC' Could Be the Computer You Need

A new Indiegogo project out of Shenzen, China, promises to make low-cost computing accessible to all. Running the Android-based Remix 2.0 OS, the Unuiga S905 claims to be the cheapest 64-bit Android desktop PC in the world. The device is cheaper than any Android handset on the market, but of course, the maker can save money on components such as wireless radios (it does have Wi-Fi and Ethernet access), speakers, cameras, and of course, there’s no display either.

With that in mind, the $30 (roughly Rs. 2,000) price on Indiegogo seems realistic, and if you are one of the first 100 backers, you will be able to get the Unuiga S905 for $25 (roughly Rs. 1,600). That’s of course, assuming that it meets its funding target – the crowdfunding project just started, and needs to hit $75,000 (roughly Rs. 50 lakh) – there’s a month to go, but at the time of writing, the project has only attracted $2,300 (roughly Rs. 1.5 lakh) in funding.

In June 2015, we had written about the Remix Mini Android desktop, which reached buyers late last year. The desktop was also priced at $30, like the Unuiga S905, and also had some similar specifications. Backers gave fairly favourable reviews to the little computer, and also the Remix OS got pretty good reviews as well. It’s now available on Amazon for $40 (roughly Rs. 2,700).

The Android-based OS is a light operating system can runs on low-power devices, and allows multi-window multi-tasking, so the overall experience of using it should be pretty similar to working on a Chromebook. You can run different Android apps at the same time, switching between – for example – Word and Chrome so you can look up details for the work you’re doing.


The Unuiga S905 is using the same OS, but its specifications are a cut ahead of the Remix Mini; for one thing, the processor is now a 2GHz 64-bit quad core CPU, compared to the 1.2GHz 64-bit quad core CPU. It’s also using a Mali-450 MP5 GPU, up from the Mali-400 MP2 in the Remix Mini. And storage on the Unuiga S905 has been bumped to 16GB, up from 8GB. It also supports HDMI 2.0 and hardware 4K decoding, so it’s more useful as a media player.

There is also the Unuiga S905+, a $45 (roughly Rs. 3,000) variant, that has 2GB of RAM instead of 1GB, and 32GB of storage, which would be an even more attractive option if it fits in your budget.

Of course, the sub-Rs. 2,000 price is slightly misleading. For one thing, you’re going to need a display unit – this shouldn’t be a problem as most people would have a TV which accepts HDMI inputs by now. You will also need a mouse and keyboard – the company behind this computer recommends the Logitech K400, which will set you back by another Rs. 2,000. If you don’t have a wireless keyboard already, then you’ve already doubled the price of the device.

Despite that, the price still remains pretty affordable, and for people who can’t afford to buy a new computer for themselves, this could be a very reasonable solution. It’s possible to see this being a good buy for a household with a limited budget, as it could be used for entertainment, gaming, and for work related tasks, such as editing text documents, spreadsheets, or presentations, browsing the Web, for example.



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